Due to today's urbanization, the distance created with nature and the decrease of human contact with it, physical and mental problems and diseases have been created for all age groups, especially children, and therefore healing gardens have become one of the needs of stressful life in today's society. Is.These gardens provide a suitable platform for human interaction, especially for children, with the environment and the involvement of different senses and the promotion of physical and mental health.Outdoor play also improves the child's immune system, stimulates his imagination and creativity, and prepares him to enter the next stages of life by gaining experience, education and communication with nature, living beings and all kinds.In today's cities, many urban spaces and even children's play spaces do not meet their needs and desires and the space is not understandable for them.This study seeks to study carefully about healing gardens and design spaces appropriate to the needs and desires of children along with promoting health, education and preparation for the next stages of life according to the relevant principles, rules and regulations.
From the beginning, man has been in contact with nature and needs this connection. This relationship increases and promotes his mental and physical health. Today, with the increasing development of urbanization, this relationship has decreased and distance from nature has led to problems that can be examined in all age groups, especially children as a special and sensitive age group of human society, this issue is seen more. Researchers and experts in defining the child have said that the child is the result of the interaction of nature-education, inheritance-environment and nature-experience. Today's change in lifestyle and urbanization has created more space and time constraints for children, their activities, games and educational processes, and has made their presence more limited. (Ebrahimi, Rezvani and Manjili, 1390, 8). Due to the pollution and diseases resulting from the new way of life, children need a safe urban environment that, in addition to being understandable to them, addresses and challenges them, by acting and playing in those neighborhoods, a factor in improving the level of health. Mental and physical, disease prevention and even healing.
The garden as a natural place is a safe and enclosed space that people take refuge in for comfort and relief from pain and sorrow. Gardens that can have a positive effect on most people in different ways are called healing gardens. With a well-thought-out design, a garden can reduce stress, nurture creativity and express the soul, and more garden healing means relieving stress and the space's ability to relax, rejuvenate and enhance mental health.
Features of the healing garden
One of the important features of healing gardens is that they are generally made of natural elements. These living and organic elements are constantly growing and changing, giving people a sense of security, hope and life. Another important feature of the healing garden is the stimulation of the five human senses in a positive way, in which man experiences all kinds of senses, for example, touching the ground under his feet, seeing the blossoming of trees and enjoying it. Smell the beautiful flowers, hear the sound of the breeze passing through the plants, feel the breeze hitting the skin and hair, and ... a garden that conveys the message of life, the cycle of nature, a sense of calm, security and beauty to the audience And do not stimulate the human senses in a positive way, the garden is not healing.
Principles of healing garden design and descriptions and how to make an impact
In the sense of readability, what is easy to understand and does not cause stress, so details that do not have a major impact on landscape design should be removed.
Variety and spatial diversity:
The combination of form, texture, etc., taking into account that it is not going to cause complexity. Simultaneously with simplicity, the garden should have a variety of forms, textures, seasonal variations as well as colors to evoke emotions, not so much as to cause stress to users. By creating variety in spaces, people are given the right to choose, and this right to choose increases the sense of control and thus reduces stress. Privacy and individual spaces can create a sense of calm in individuals and collective spaces lead to an increase in a sense of social security and a sense of empathy. In addition, children can experience play and happiness together.
As the elements of the site relate, this spatial balance can be formal or informal. In formal conditions, more symmetry is used, and in informal conditions, the number and size of plants on both sides are proportional and somewhat similar. It is very important to have a symmetrical or asymmetrical balance in the design of the healing garden, because balance creates a sense of stability and stability.
Attention is paid to some factors to make them important. By using plant arrangement, emphasis can be created in the garden. These factors help people to find points of interest and also help them in navigation.Emphasis by plants is in several ways:Specimen plants, special plants, key plants, group plants and mass plants.
Dominance of green space:
By using natural elements correctly and eliminating hard and rough surfaces, softness is created in the space and thus people can feel progress in their overall improvement.
Gardens that encourage people to be mentally and physically active can reduce depression. (Paying attention to treatment methods: horticulture therapy, art therapy, etc.)
Create positive distractions:
Natural factors that attract people's attention and thus distract from the disease and discomfort reduce stress levels. Factors such as flowers, water, etc. Activities such as gardening can also play a role (horticultural therapy)
Minimize unwanted issues: Minimizing negative factors such as urban noise, pollution, etc. adds to the positive effects of gardens.
Enclosed healing garden can create peace of mind and environment for relaxation as well as a private and intimate atmosphere. The garden with living elements such as trees, flowers, shrubs can create a sense of security and hope in the audience.
Equipment is one of the most important elements of urban parks, especially children's parks. Most of these devices are made of wood, plastic and iron, during construction, they try to create integration in these devices.
In the public park, for parental supervision, equipment is placed in a place that is visible to them and they can see their child's activity. These fields are designed with different shapes and components and are used in parks. Usually, according to safety principles, they anticipate possible dangers during the game and by design, reduce the risk of accidents.
Some people believe that in order to strengthen a child's imagination, it is better to use shapeless objects so that the child can visualize them in his mind and use them.
Usually, some children find it more difficult to get active and active. It is necessary to create conditions by designing them to be absorbed and active, to communicate with others and to gain experience.
Familiarity with some tools, equipment and jobs in the game space can be a source of interest along with training. Children build their future in those occupations and realize what they are most interested in and what talents and skills they should spend more time on for the future.
Important points in designing game equipment
1- Use warm and happy colors in making parts related to children.
2- The materials used should be soft on the surface and sides and without any sharpness
3- Create security and a sense of security for the child.
4- It helps children to learn and has an educational aspect, especially indirectly. Of course, it is not bad sometimes to teach directly, but the effect of indirect education will be more
5 - According to health issues, especially the diseases that we are currently dealing with should be disinfectants.
6- There is charm along with helping the child's imagination
7- Play equipment should be the basis for the child's independence and he can use it
without the need for help.
8- Play equipment should point to familiar items in the child's mind so that he can communicate better with them.
Music therapy is a complementary therapy in which the therapist tries to change the patient's condition and his psychological treatment along with other sedative therapies by exposing the patient to music and using the rhythms, sounds and universal characteristics of music. Music therapy has been a specialized discipline for about 60 years.
The use of modern therapeutic methods along with the healing properties in the children's healing garden can be a factor so that all groups of children with all limitations can use this space and by working in it indirectly along with playing and preparing to participate in society at an older age. Go through their treatment process as well.
Crime prevention using CPTED environmental design
Crime prevention using environmental design is a purposeful approach to efficiently and intelligently design environmental components by optimally using the artificial environment to reduce crime. This has a great impact on increasing social capital, improving the quality of life and increasing citizenship satisfaction and thus improving the social welfare of society. The CPTED approach can be effective in two dimensions: the real reduction of crime in urban environments on the one hand, and the increase of their sense of safety and security in space. The most basic principles of CPTED can be summarized in the term OTREF (Opportunity, Target, Risk, Effort). That is, the advantage of committing a crime is a function of the effort (amount) of risk, purpose, and opportunity. The CPTED approach examines precisely the urban form and its relationship to urban crime. According to this theory, urban designers and planners, with the knowledge and experience they have, according to the construction capacity of the environment to reduce the fear of crime and reduce the potential for abuse in the environment, design and plan urban
Principles of CPTED in Iranian green spaces and gardens
Misconduct shows that the decision to do or give up is more influenced by a sense of acceptance and risk than by a sense of freedom. Based on these results, CPTED has based its adopted strategies on increasing the risk of arrest and public surveillance. These strategies include how to design the space:
Strengthening territories by increasing the difference between spaces and improving the relationship between them, creates collective control and supervision. And the privacy of this issue is already taken into account.
With the help of natural monitoring, along with increasing public awareness and increasing visibility, the opportunity for action will be more limited.
When designing a lighting system in the garden and green spaces, creating a dim space should be avoided, because lack of proper visibility makes the space vulnerable.
The amount of shadow in the space should be under the control of the designer. Light can play a role in creating an inner feeling. Also, extreme light contrast in the space should be avoided because it creates problems for the observer.
One of the purposes of building an Iranian garden is to create a micro-climate, and due to the hot and dry climate, shading is one of the most important principles in design and planting, but the shade created does not cause complete darkness and blind space.
Trees, shrubs, decorative fences, flower surfaces, vegetation form our landscape. Controlling their growth and management in space can prevent the creation of unsupervised spaces away from the general space.
One of the problems of green space projects is the lack of familiarity of designers with crime, which has unfortunate consequences. Paying attention to physical security is very important in protecting the lives and property of people.
Access control by detecting the difference between public and private spaces limits the amount of crime in areas where there is a possibility of crime. In this method, exits, entrances and fences are controlled.
This feature can be clearly seen in the design of the Persian garden due to the entry restrictions.
Locating activities that increase natural surveillance in critical areas, such as locating gatherings for natural surveillance, access control, and safeguards to prevent offenders.
Proper protection of landscapes and ambient lighting, minimizing disturbances at the monitoring site and other aspects that can be effective in crime prevention. Proper maintenance of equipment in green spaces can reduce crime.
Supporting social activities
This means that it is possible to create some social activities in the space that in addition to entertainment, welfare facilities and job creation can increase the continuous presence of the population and human supervision over them. Many crimes are committed in an environment where there is little public oversight or no physical presence.
This project is a topic related to landscape architecture, environmental engineering, psychology, health and hygiene. Stress is always with us, whether at work, on the street or even at home. We are looking for a sustainable landscape that serves as a stress reliever and the prevention and even treatment of some diseases through healing gardens. This project presents a case study for the design of a children's healing garden. A plan that combines a framework in order to achieve the therapeutic goals of plants and is based on the study of relevant articles, books, experimental results, scientific observations, along with the study of modern and traditional successful examples.
Children learn through play and prepare for life through experience. They need activity, a responsive and activity-oriented environment is a way to increase the child's activity in the future, when a child begins to play, is playing and observes that his activity affects the environment, he concludes that any effort And if he does a good job, it will bring results, it will work in his mind and it will help him in the future.
Children's Healing Garden is a plan for a better and healthier life in today's cities using the principles of healing gardens, aromatherapy (aromatherapy), colorology (color therapy) and .... The use of aromatic plants with medicinal properties and the spread of their aroma due to children's activity in the zone environment and the transmission of aroma by wind in other areas of the park, increase health, encourage children to activity, psychological issues related to observing the result of activity in children, creating opportunities Interaction, cooperation, friendship and more familiarity with social life to children, engaging the five senses of users to increase communication along with a better and more understanding of the park space are among the items that have been addressed in the design.
Based on the material collected and reviewed in previous chapters, it was concluded that the city is an environment in which children are born, grow and learn; Therefore, they must both learn how to live in the city and be able to use and enjoy it. The unhealthiness of urban spaces and their non-adaptation to the needs and wants of children has led to changes in their patterns of activity that have consequences and dangers in the future. On the other hand, pollution and distance from nature have caused problems for all groups, especially children. The space in which they should work should pay special attention to promoting their health and strengthening their immune system, so the need for a healing garden. Children in Tehran are seen as a metropolis more than anywhere else.
The next discussion is the need to create a culture for the protection of nature, given that many of the emotional and behavioral characteristics of human beings are formed in childhood and adolescence, and if opportunities are lost in the stage of acceptance and preparation for human education, there may be shortcomings. And the opportunities are irreparable in the later stages. When natural environments are taken away from children today, they should not be expected to have a relationship with nature in adulthood or even consider themselves responsible for its preservation. It must be accepted that successful planning and management tends to use public participation, so the Children's Healing Garden can be the basis for this culture-building in children, the future makers of Tehran. This issue was also considered in the designs and efforts to bring the child closer to nature and even the education and planting of plants.
Use the park and its furniture during the accident and after the accident
Green space, as one of the public spaces used in special occasions and also used by some users around the clock, feels the need for furniture that can be used in all situations, especially emergencies. Things like placing a solar cell, storing solar energy and converting it into electrical energy to charge users' mobile phones and belongings, placing a first aid kit and designing so that the furniture can be used as a temporary shelter.
Store and use morning light at night
Placing luminescent materials and paints to absorb natural light during the day and reflect it at night is one of the design suggestions to increase security and also reduce energy consumption in the garden. These materials can be useful in some zones, vertical elements, around paths, etc. to guide and use the space of users at night. Also create a suitable atmosphere for users in the aftermath of an accident and power outage.
Water storage and supply
A piece of furniture, no matter how small on an urban scale, can do a great job if it can obtain and store some of the water needed for plants, animals, and birds in relation to rainfall and humidity.
A place for cultural activities
Equipping furniture with books and even audio books to the user's choice and interest, playing music, poetry, motivational messages and advice, scientific and educational tips can help raise the cultural level of users. Education and better understanding of the curriculum, safety and health tips, familiarity with urban and city life along with games and activities for children is another goal of designing different parts of this park.
Create a sense of ownership by engaging users' personal memories
A space for recording memories with the user's history, mood and mood, evacuation of negative thoughts due to the pressures on the user can be a factor for permanent use and return of the user to the space, in addition, it has a great psychological impact on people.
The child's play space should be full of variety and charm. Cases that are perhaps less addressed in the country.
Pay attention to children and a better future
Children learn through play and prepare for life through experience. This was one of the most important topics in the design. Direct and indirect education during children's activities and games in the healing garden, communication, cooperation and participation in collective activities and teaching of academic and non-academic subjects in each section have been considered and then designed.
Responsive and activity-oriented environment
Showing activity results is a way to increase your child's activity in the future. When a child starts and plays, he or she realizes that his or her activity affects the environment and learns that every activity he or she does has consequences. His mind wanders that this will help him in the future.
Children need care and supervision. This supervision should be in a way that prevents their activities and does not limit the child's independence. Parents enjoy watching their child play and learn. This issue has been considered in the design of this space.
Preparing for social life and creating opportunities to connect with fellow human beings
Life is a collective activity. In order to live, we need to communicate with others and work in a team. Designing a collective space has created this opportunity for children. They play together, learn together and become friends.
Pay attention to the design challenge against virus pandemic and epidemic issues
The issue of users' health has always been a concern of landscape architects. It has been predicted that with the outbreak of coronary heart disease and its spread, new principles in design and architecture will be created. In this plan, according to observing, reviewing and studying the ideas presented by architects, designers and health tips provided by physicians, try to upgrade, combine and present in the form of a coherent architectural plan in order to prevent the spread and eliminate the disease chain. In addition to maximizing the use of space for users, in addition to performing social responsibility as an architect and landscape designer, they face the challenges of the day, together with like-minded international designers and architects, through the path of promotion and integration of ideas to seek the best response and creation. A suitable space for the presence and activity of users.
The new arrangement of furniture, attention to social spacing, design of handles and openings, tips and innovations related to toilets, space disinfection systems and users are some of the items that have been used in the design.
In designing this plan, an attempt has been made to be one of the first plans related to landscape architecture, which deals with corona and post-corona and the conditions of activity and the presence of users in urban green space in the design.
Behavioral design in the design of access routes
In the design of the neighborhood park, observing the passage of local people through the paths created by the passage of time and the personal experience of the people is a priority, which was obtained by observing this information before entering the design and has been used in the design.
The relationship between humans and plants
Cleaning and absorption of pollutants by plants in green space and flower beds of designed furniture, shading, creating humidity, aromatizing the space, medicinal properties of breathing along with plants are some of the innovations of this design.
Pay attention to the share of birds and animals along with human interaction with them
Space city is not only for humans, animals and birds also share with us, space design for animals and birds can make good sense for space users. As mentioned earlier, when a subject is taught and cultured in childhood, its impact will remain in the future. Paying attention to other living beings and dealing with them properly can promise a better life in the future.
Ability to use the designed furniture of the park at all hours and all seasons
The use of materials with a high thermal coefficient causes the gradual absorption of heat during the day and its gradual release at night. In addition, this goal can be easily achieved by changing the details and adding some simple systems.
Opportunity to use all sections of society
The elderly and people with mobility and sensory limitations are part of society and have the right to use urban facilities with their children.
Balance between sociability and individual privacy in park spaces
Each person, depending on their personal characteristics and mood, decides to be in social or private spaces. It should be noted that users have the right to choose and our design should not limit them. Flexible design according to the tastes and circumstances of each person is a topic that should be used in the design of the play space.
Due to the need of children for security in space, one of the important principles in designing this collection has been paying attention to CPTED.
Sunlight, especially it's ultraviolet light, is known as one of the most effective disinfectants, which has been used by humans since the beginning.Later, with the advancement of science artificially, ultraviolet lamps were used to disinfect spaces and objects. And now, with further studies, advances in science, review of research and design samples, their upgrading and optimization, we have become acquainted with a specific wavelength of ultraviolet light that, in addition to its ability to kill viruses, is not harmful to humans and animals.
Items that were made available to the public, industrial designers, and architects through experiments and research of different groups and related science specialists for free. By studying and observing the presented designs, we were able to create a smart and responsive space, a safe space away from viruses. Design with the ability to expand the space.
Coronaviruses are a large family of single-stranded RNA viruses that cause a wide range of diseases of varying severity. Necessary measures to deal with this disease include hygiene and cleansing of hands, body, clothes, tools and equipment. Ultraviolet light has been used in industry for many years to cleanse viruses, which has been created due to the intense absorption of energy by organic bases in the microbial nucleic acid.
UVC lamps 200 to 280 nm have been used for decades to disinfect, kill germs and viruses in hospitals, and when used, the workplace should be empty of staff because these lamps are mostly 254 nm. They are used that can penetrate the eyes and skin and cause inflammation and pain. However, wavelengths shorter than 230 nm have much less penetration into the skin and will cause less damage. The upper layers of the skin are a natural protector against short wavelengths of UVC rays. Ultraviolet lamps with wavelengths longer than 230 nm are less dangerous than existing germicidal lamps. Far-UVC lamps 222 nm are safe for humans and animals; Because the proteins in the skin effectively absorb this light and are considered a natural protective barrier.
With this UVC, in addition to its antimicrobial properties, it can be used without damaging the skin and eyes of humans and animals, and cleaning and microbializing operations can be performed in the presence of humans and animals.
According to research and scientific evidence, the use of this specific wavelength of ultraviolet light in the design in addition to urban spaces in places such as hospitals, buses, airplanes, trains, train stations, schools, restaurants, offices, theaters, gyms and everywhere Far-UVC can be used, along with other precautions, to prevent the spread of viruses.
The researchers found that continuous exposure to Far-UVC radiation reduced airborne viruses by 90 percent in 8 minutes, 95 percent in about 11 minutes, 99 percent in about 16 minutes, and 99.9 percent in about 25 minutes. Preliminary results from another study show that Far-UVC ultraviolet light is also effective against SARS-CoV-2 virus. According to research and scientific evidence, the use of this specific wavelength of ultraviolet light in the design in addition to urban spaces in places such as hospitals, buses, airplanes, trains, train stations, schools, restaurants, offices, theaters, gyms and everywhere Far-UVC can be used, along with other precautions, to prevent the spread of viruses.
Architectural & Landscape Designer: Mohsen Kheirmand Parizi
Research and Development: Mohsen Kheirmand Parizi, Sajjad Kheirmand Parizi & Iliya Ghanbari
Advisors and guides: Dr. Mohsen Moosavi, Dr. Mohsen Kafi, Kiarash Kohansal, Nima Arzhangi & Farshad Rezakhanloo
CG Artist: Seyed Mohammad Hossein Rahmati, Bahare Dahaghin & Mohsen Kheirmand Parizi
Responsive designer: Zahra Ebrahimi
Translator: Hanieh Lotfipour
Under Support from Islamic Azad University - West Tehran Branch (WTIAU) & Young Researchers and Elite Club of Islamic Azad University - West Tehran Branch (WTIAU)
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